Crocus (scientific name: Crocus sativusL.), Also known as saffron and saffron, is a perennial flower of the genus Crocus of the iris family and a common spice. Crocus is a native species of southwest Asia, first cultivated by the Greeks. Mainly distributed in Europe, the Mediterranean and Central Asia and other places, it was introduced to China during the Ming Dynasty. "Compendium of Materia Medica" listed it as a kind of medicine. It is a precious Chinese medicinal material with strong physiological activity. Its stigma is in Asia and Europe. As medicinal, it has sedative, expectorant and antispasmodic effects, and is used for the treatment of stomach diseases, menstruation, measles, fever, yellow gallbladder, liver and splenomegaly. Crocus is a perennial herbaceous plant. The bulb is oblate and spherical with a diameter of about 3 cm. It is covered with a yellow-brown membrane. Ye Jisheng, 9-15 pieces, strip-shaped, gray-green, edge rewind; the base of the leaf clump is covered with 4-5 membranous sheath-like leaves. The flower stems are very short and do not stick out of the ground; the flowers are 1-2, light blue, red purple or white, scented, style orange-red, stigmas slightly flat, wedge-shaped at the top, light teeth, narrow ovary spindle-shaped. Capsule is oval, about 3 cm long.
番红花（学名：Crocus sativusL.）又称藏红花、西红花，是一种鸢尾科番红花属的多年生花卉，也是一种常见的香料。番红花亚洲西南部原生种，最早由希腊人人工栽培。主要分布在欧洲、地中海及中亚等地，明朝时传入中国，《本草纲目》将它列入药物之类是一种名贵的中药材，具有强大的生理活性，其柱头在亚洲和欧洲作为药用，有镇静、祛痰、解 痉作用，用于胃病、调经、麻疹、发热、黄胆、肝脾肿大等的治疗。番红花为多年生草本植物，球茎扁圆球形，直径约3厘米，外有黄褐色的膜质包被。叶基生，9-15枚，条形，灰绿色，边缘反卷；叶丛基部包有4-5片膜质的鞘状叶。花茎甚短，不伸出地面；花1-2朵，淡蓝色、红紫色或白色，有香味，花柱橙红色，柱头略扁，顶端楔形，有浅齿，子房狭纺锤形。蒴果椭圆形，长约3厘米。